Friday, October 25, 2013

Grammar - India 5A


LANGUAGE ARTS
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Grammar and Usage

In the following sentences, four parts of each sentence are underlined. If you think any one of the underlined parts is incorrect, choose the letter under that part as your answer. If you think the sentence is correct as written, choose (E) as your answer. Please note: read together, all of the sentences in this section make up a story.

1. India is official known as the Republic of India. No Error.
A: OFFICIAL is not correct. You are describing, so you need to say “officially”
 2. India are a country in South Asia. No Error.
A: ARE is wrong here. India is a singular country (one country) so it is singular. Sentence should read that India IS a country in South Asia.
3. It is the seven-largest country by area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world. No Error.
A: SEVEN is wrong here. Sentence should read SEVENTH because you are listing an order- ex: First, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh.
4. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the south-west, and the Bay of Bengal on the south-east, they shares land borders with Pakistan to the west China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north-east; and Burma and Bangladesh to the east. No Error.
A: THEY is wrong here. India is ONE country and therefore India is an IT, not a THEY.
5. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; in addition, Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia. No Error.
A: INDIAS is wrong here. You need possession. You are referring to “India’s islands,” so you need an apostrophe.
6. Home to the Indus Valley Civilization and a region of historic trade routes and vast empires, the Indian subcontinent were identified with its commercial and cultural wealth for much of its long history. No Error.
A: WERE is wrong here. India is singular and the Indian Subcontinent is singular as well. The correct phrase should be “was”
7. Four world religionsHinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhismoriginated here, whereas Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived in the 1st millennium and also helped shape the regions diverse culture. No Error.
A: Again, here you are showing possession. You need to say “region’s diverse culture”
8. Gradually annexed by and brought under the administration of the British East India Company from the early 18th century and administered directly by the United Kingdom from the mid-19th century, India became a independent nation in 1947 after a struggle for independence that was marked by non-violent resistance led by Mahatma Gandhi. No Error.
A: “A” is wrong here. Before a vowel (a,e,i,o,u) you need to have an “an.” The correct answer should read that “India became AN independent nation” 
9. The Indian economy are the world's tenth-largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).  No Error.
A: ARE is wrong here. The Indian economy is ONE economy, so you use IS not ARE. Remember, “One teacher teaches but many teachers teach”
10. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the faster-growing major economies and it is considered a newly industrialized country. No Error.
A: FASTER is wrong here. The answer should say that India became one of the FASTEST growing economies. Use ER endings when you have TWO; use EST endings whenever you have THREE or MORE. When you are not sure, use EST. EX: Taller, shorter, thinner = 2 but tallest, shortest, thinnest = 3 or more
11. However it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, inadequate public healthcare, and terrorism. No Error.
A: However needs a comma after it. You always need a comma after a transition. (For example, however, thus, in addition, moreover, furthermore, as a matter of fact, first, second, third)
12. A nuclear weapons state and a regional  power India has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks eighth in military expenditure among nations. No Error.
A: After the word “power,” you need a comma (before the word “India”). Use commas to separate words and word groups with a series of three or more. Also, use commas to separate two adjectives when the word “and” can be inserted between them. Use a comma when an LY is inserted between adjectives. Use commas before or surrounding the name or title of a person. In this example, use a comma after phrases of more than three words that begin a sentence. The sentence should read, “A nuclear weapons state and a regional power, India has the third-largest standing army in the world and ranks eighth in military expenditure among nations.
13. India is a pluralistic, multilingual, and multiethnic society. It is also home to a diversity from wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. No Error.
A: FROM is wrong. A diversity OF wildlife. The preposition is wrong here Remember, you compare TO/WITH, contrast FROM, partake IN a meal, and are jealous OF a friend.
14. The name India is derived from Indus, who originates from the Old Persian word Hindu┼í.  No Error.
A: India is NOT a PERSON so we have to use WHICH not WHO. Only use WHO when referring to people.
15. The latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the indus river. No Error.
A: INDUS RIVER must be capitalized because it is a proper noun and the name of a specific river.
16. Hindustan were originally a Persian word that meant "Land of the Hindus". No Error.
A: Hindustan is singular. You need to say it WAS not WERE.
17. Prior to 1947 India referred to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan. No Error.
A: The comma is missing here. After 1947 you need a comma. When starting a sentence with a weak clause, you use a comma after it. Ex: “After the War of 1812,”
18. It is occasionally used to solely denote India in it’s entirety. No Error.
A: It’s is wrong here. IT’S is a contraction for IT IS so you need not use it. ITS (without the apostrophe) is a possession and the correct phrasing for this answer.
19. India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent and lies atop the minor Indian tectonic plate, which in turn belong to the Indo-Australian Plate. No Error.
A: BELONG is wrong here. Tectonic plates IS singular so you must have BELONGS not BELONG. Remember, one belongs, many belong.  There is an issue here with subject-agreement. No Error.
20. Indias defining geological processes commenced 75 million years ago. No Error.
A: INDIAS is wrong here. You need a possession here! The sentence should read “India’s”  


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