Grammar and Usage
In the following sentences, four parts of each sentence are underlined. If you think any one of the underlined parts is incorrect, choose the letter under that part as your answer. If you think the sentence is correct as written, choose (E) as your answer. Please note: read together, all of the sentences in this section make up a story.
1. Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, are the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. No Error.
A: ARE is wrong here. Vietnam is a single country (singular), not plural. Therefore, IS should be used in place of ARE.
2. With an estimated 90.3 million inhabitants as of 2012, it is the eighth-most-populous asian country. No Error.
A: ASIAN must be capitalized. Asian, not asian.
3. The name Vietnam translate as "Southern Viet" and was first officially adopted in 1802 by Emperor Gia Long and again in 1945 with the founding of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh. No Error.
A: The subject of this sentence is the name, which is singular. Therefore, TRANSLATES (a singular verb) should be used.
4. The Country is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea to the east. No Error.
A: Country is not a proper noun here and should not be capitalized.
5. It’s capital city has been Hanoi since the reunification of North and South Vietnam in 1976. No Error.
A: IT’S refers to the contraction of it is, not the possessive form of it. ITS is the possessive from of it and should be used here.
6. The Vietnamese became independent from Imperial China in 938 AD, following the resounding vietnamese victory in the Battle of Bạch Đằng River. No Error.
A: Vietnamese is a proper noun and must be capitalized. Vietnamese, not vietnamese.
7. Successive Vietnamese royal dynasties flourished as the nation expanded geographical and politically into Southeast Asia. No Error.
A: Geographical is wrong here. You need an –LY ending. Sentence should read “Geographically.” An adverb is designed to modify or quantify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. An adverb is used primarily to modify a verb.
8. Following a Japanese occupation in the 1940s, the Vietnamese fought French rule in the first Indochina War, eventually expelling the french in 1954. No Error.
A: French is a proper noun and must be capitalized. “French”
9: Thereafter Vietnam was divided politically into two rival states. No Error.
A: You need a comma after THEREAFTER. You always need a comma after a transition. A comma indicates a pause in between parts of a sentence.
10: Conflict among the two sides intensified, with heavy foreign intervention, during the Vietnam War, which ended with a North Vietnamese victory in 1975. No Error.
A: AMONG is wrong here. Use “among” only when dealing with three or more. Use “between” when you are certain that you are dealing with two. Here, the sentence clearly says “two” so you must use “between”
11. Vietnam was then unified under a Communist government, but they was politically isolated and impoverished. No Error.
A: THEY is wrong here. Vietnam is a single country, so you must use IT, not THEY
12. In 1986, the government initiated a series of economic and political reforms, which began Vietnams path towards integration into the world economy. No Error.
A: You need an apostrophe here. “Vietnam’s” path.
13. By the year 2000 the country had established diplomatic relations with most nations. No Error.
A: “By the year 2000, the country” – You need a comma after 2000. To avoid confusion, use commas to separate words and word groups within a series of three or more. Also use a comma to separate two adjectives when the word “and” can be inserted between them. Here, use a comma after phrases of more than three words that begin a sentence. If the phrase has fewer than three words, then the comma is optional.
14. Vietnams economic growth has been among the highest in the world since 2000. No Error.
A: “Vietnam’s” because you need possession here.
15. Vietnam had the higher Global Growth Generators Index among 11 major economies in 2011. No Error.
A: HIGHER is wrong here. Only use ER endings when you have exactly two. Otherwise use EST endings.
16. It’s successful economic reforms resulted in it joining the World Trade Organization in 2007. No Error.
A: IT’S is wrong here. You must use ITS successful reforms because you need to show a possession (Vietnam’s reforms). You cannot use IT’S because that is a contraction for IT IS.
17. However, the country still suffer from relatively high levels of income inequality, disparities in healthcare provision, and poor gender equality. No Error.
A: SUFFER is wrong here. The country is ONE country and it is SINGULAR, no matter how many people live in the country. Remember: A family of five IS large! A class of 30 students IS a large class! Focus on the subject. A country with 100,000,000 people IS a large country.
18. As a coastal country Vietnam has many major seaports, including: Cam Ranh, Da Nang, Hai Phong, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Gai, Qui Nhơn, Vũng Tàu and Nha Trang. No Error.
A: “Country, Vietnam” – the comma is missing here.
19. According to the 2005 National Environmental Present Condition Report, Vietnam is one of twenty-five countries considered to possess a unique high level of biodiversity. No Error.
A: UNIQUE should be replaced with “uniquely.” Remember to use an adjective after the verb, or in this case the infinitive of the verb. “Uniquely” is appropriate here. Remember: “Drive safely,” “Speak softly”
20: In agricultural genetic diversity, Vietnam is one of the worlds twelve original cultivar centers. No Error.
A: “WORLD’S” You need an 3apostrophe here to show possession. “John’s car” “Rachel’s house” “world’s centers”